Liquid samples can be constantly pumped via the beam path using flow cells, which are sample cells. For samples that the light source might harm, this is helpful. In order to prevent the damage from interfering with the signal, fresh samples are regularly replaced.
Optical coatings, such as fluorescence filters, grating structures, or bio-functional coatings, can further modify surfaces on the inside and outside.
Flow cells are excellent tools for targeted corrosion monitoring, failure cause analysis, and performance-based chemical treatment optimization and control.